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Arthurian A2Z
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Hafgan

Welsh tradition. Hafgan was the sworn opponent of 'Arawn' (See Arawn) with whom he would enter into combat with each year. Hafgan has been likened to both the characters of 'The Green Knight' (See Green Knight) and 'Gromer Somer Joure' (See Gromer Somer Joure) who appear in 'Gawain's' (See Gawain) story.

He is defeated by 'Pwyll' (See Pwyll).

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Hallows

The Hallows across most legends are seen to represent the royal regalia carried by the King, or the objects sought by someone such as a 'Grail Quester' (See Grail Knights) in both ancient and modern stories.

The sacred vessels, or 'Hallows of Ireland' were believed to have been brought by the 'Tuatha de Danaan' (See Tuatha de Danaan) to Ireland and kept in the 'Crane Bag', visible at high tide only. Four people were responsible for guarding the contents, known as 'Guardians of the Hallows' : 'Manannan' (See Manannan), 'Lugh' (See Lugh), 'Cumhal' (See Cumhal), 'Fionn' (See Fionn). When it was first in Manannan's care it contained:

Manannan's House;
Goibniu's shirt, belt, knife and smith's hook;
King of Lochlann's Helmet;
King of Alba's Shears;
A Belt made from fish skin;
Asal's pig's bones.

Later the Tuatha de Danaan were believed to be a people who were said to have brought sacred treasures from an island near Greece to Ireland from the Otherworld (See Otherworld). There were said to be four treasures:

1. Shining spear of Lugh (from Gorias), providing victory in any fight;
2. Stone of Fal (from Falias), kings were crowned on this;
3. Sword of Nuadu (from Findias), impossible to avoid being struck and wounded by its contact;
4. Cauldron of Dagda (from Murias), of plenty. (See Dagda), (See Bran the Blessed).

The four hallows of the Tuatha de Danaan were developed in later traditions to be:

1. The Pole of Combat;
2. The Sword of Light;
3. The Cauldron of Cure;
4. The Stone of Destiny.

These have since been further developed to the four symbols of magical elements, to also be seen on Tarot packs as the four suits:

1. The Sword;
2. The Spear;
3. The Cup;
4. The Pentacle.

We can see that the sacred vessels influenced the Arthurian legends, Grail legends and the search for the hallowed objects in ancient 'Annwn' (See Annwn) also being associated with those of the Tuatha de Danaan:

1. The Sword which is Broken;
2. The Spear of the Dolorous Blow;
3. The Dish (to process the Head of the Withdrawn Grail Guardian);
4. The Grail (Sacred Chalice / Cauldron of Plenty & Inspiration).

The Spear has also been referred to as the 'Lance of Longinus', as it is said to be the one which 'Longinus', a Roman centurion, used to pierce Christ's side as He was being crucified.

The Hallows were believed to be shown to the Grail Questers whilst attending a meeting, or in some cases a feast. This meeting has been considered to be a tradition if not a ritual accompaniment to the feast, where the focus of the viewing of The Hallows was considered one to be respected. In some legends the 'Lady of the Lake' (See Lady of the Lake) is referred to as the 'Guardian of the Hallows of Kingship'.

Today The Hallows can be seen to exist in modern regalia;

1. The Sceptre (Rod of Equity and Mercy);
2. The Sword of State;
3. The Ampulla of Holy Oil;
4. The Crown.

In early Arthurian legend it was said that thirteen treasures existed in the Otherworld, and these were reputed to have been retrieved from Annwn by Arthur. These were collectively known as the 'Thirteen Treasures of Britain' (See Hallows of Britain). The story of their recovery is told in the poems of 'Taliesin' (See Taliesin).

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Hallows of Britain

aka 'Thirteen Treasures of Britain'. 'Arthur' (See Arthur) is said to have travelled to 'Annwn' (See Annwn) to attempt to recover these sacred objects. According to Arthurian legend the treasures could only be used by the King or his representative in battle. It is believed that the right to own and guard these objects reflect the same qualities needed to be worthy of the marital union with 'Sovereignty' (See Sovereignty). Their fame and history was told in the writings of the Mabinogion and early Welsh Triads, and their storage was said to be guarded by 'Merlin' (See Merlin) at Bardsey Island where he was said to have lived at one time in a glass house.

'Dyrnwyn, the Sword of Rhydderch the Generous';
Possessing the ability to burst into flame.
'The Hamper of Gwyddno Garanhir';
Possessing the ability to turn one meal into one-hundred meals.
'The Horn of Bran';
Possessing the ability to provide any drink.
'The Chariot of Morgan the Wealthy';
Possessing the ability to travel at great speed to any location.
'The Halter of Clyno Eiddyn';
Possessing the ability to provide a horse of the seeker's choice.
'The Knife of Llawfronedd the Horseman';
Possessing the ability to cut enough food for twenty-four men.
'The Cauldron of Diwrnach the Giant';
Possessing the ability to heat the food for a hero but not a coward.
'The Whetstone of Tudwal Tudglyd';
Possessing the ability to ensure death would follow wounding.
'The Coat of Padarn Red-Coat';
Possessing the ability to identify those of noble birth.
'The Crock of Rhygenydd';
Possessing the ability to provide favourite foods.
'The Dish of Rhygenydd';
Possessing the ability to provide favourite foods.
'The Chessboard of Gwenddolau';
Possessing the ability to play by itself.
'The Mantle of Arthur'.
Possessing the ability to make the wearer invisible to any observer.

It is not clear whether Arthur successfully retrieved all the treasures from Annwn except for the Cauldron of Diwrnach the Giant.

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Halwynna

Wife of 'Benselek' (See Benesek), said in some legends to be the nurse of 'Taliesin' (See Taliesin).

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Hawk

A bird of the Sun and therefore associated with the Sun Gods, a royal bird to many ancient societies and one that signifies the gift of prophecy. In Greek mythology the hawk was the messenger of 'Apollo' (See Apollo) in ancient Egypt with Ra and Horus (See Horus) and of the Great Mother Amenti. (See Gawain). (See Gwalchmei).

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Hefaidd Hen

A Lord of the Underworld, father of 'Rhiannon' (See Rhiannon) in Welsh legend.

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Helie

In the stories of 'Esmeree' she is a handmaiden to Esmeree who aided her rescue by leading 'Guinglan' (See Gingalin) to rescue her mistress. Her character undergoes a transformation as she progresses from a disliking of him to ultimately respecting his ability and prowess in this action.

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Hellawes

aka 'Lady of the Castle Nigramours', Castle Necromancy in Arthurian legend. Reputed to have been an enchantress, a sorceress. Said to have died when her love for 'Lancelot' (See Lancelot) was spurned.

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Helyas

Fourth in the line of 'The Grail Kings' (See Grail King) after 'Celidoine, the King of Scotland'.

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Hengist

'Hengist, the Saxon', father of 'Rowena' (See Rowena).

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Hermod

Attempts to rescue 'Baldur' from 'Hel' (See Nanna).

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High King of Britain

See Uther. See Arthur.

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Hilda

Abbess of the early Celtic Church, Saxon, seventh-century, nobility, her relics were brought to Glastonbury Abbey (See Glastonbury) in the tenth-century (See Mystical-WWW Mystical Time : Dates, 17 November for more information on Hilda).

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Hoel of Brittany

Wife of 'Duke Jovelin of Arundel', mother of 'Iseult of Brittany' (See Iseult of Brittany).

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Horn of Fidelity

A gift to 'King Arthur' (See Arthur) from 'Morgan le Fay' (See Morgan le Fay). It was said that no Lady could drink out of it if they had been unfaithful. Those that had committed adultery would spill the contents. The Horn was taken to 'King Mark of Cornwall' (See Mark), whose wife 'Isolt of Ireland' (See Isolt) could not prove her fidelity.

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Horse

In Arthurian legend the horse is the object of a quest and is usually noted as having a magical bridle. A white horse plays a significant part in the legend of 'Gawain' (See Gawain). On finding this animal, it was usual in legend for the beast to transform into a feminine form which may perhaps be rooted in Celtic legend (See Mystical-WWW Mystic's Menagerie : Horse).

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Horus

Ancient Egyptian God, son of 'Osiris' (See Osiris), associated with the hawk and the resurrected 'Osiris, God of the not-dead' on his return from 'Amenti', equivalent to 'Annwn' (See Annwn). The mythology of Osiris and Horus is reflected in Arthurian legend.

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Hu

Reputed to have encouraged a monster in the form of a gigantic beaver to leave the lake which was then killed by 'Peredur' (See Peredur).

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All documents, in part, in section or whole, are copyrighted and the sole property of Mystical World Wide Web. The work may not be duplicated in any form for private or public use including all electronic forms without the prior permission of the Producer (copyrighted).
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mellpaul@mystical-www.co.uk